Mevlana Museum in Konya was built by the Seljuk Turks in Konya was the capital of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum Anatolia. Inthe Seljuks defeated the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikertstarting the Turkification process in the area; the Turkish language and Islam were introduced to Armenia and Anatolia, gradually spreading throughout the region.
Walterova is a graduate student at the Department of International Relations, Bilkent University Turkey has historically been of great geopolitical importance to states in the regions surrounding it as well as to states more remotely located.
With the fall of the Warsaw Pact, this consideration disappeared. However, Turkey has regained its geopolitical importance for other reasons. One of these is its location between large energy markets and major energy producers. Though it lacks its own significant mineral reserves,1 it has strategic advantages for energy transit as it lies between the Middle East, Russia and the Caucasus and the large energy markets of Europe and the West.
Many believe that having control over energy-transport corridors could be almost as essential as having control over energy supplies themselves. Through such initiatives, Turkey can not only gain energy security for itself, but also contribute to global energy security.
Over the last several years, many in the EU have started to become aware of the security dangers of such a policy gap.
About 50 percent of their oil and natural gas requirements are imported, and experts predict that this number will rise to 70 percent by According to the European Commission, extraction costs in the Union are high and the scarce domestic sources that the EU has are running out.
This situation makes the EU vulnerable, particularly due to its economic dependence on certain types of energy, such as oil and gas, and on particular exporting countries. The policy of diversifying energy imports can also bring only limited results. Russia, the Caspian region, the Near East and Nigeria.
According to Roberts, 10 producers, with Although Turkey plays a role in the global oil market as well, its role as a transit country for the EU market is important rather than vital.
It recognizes that its growing dependence on imported energy is a security threat and that a policy to reduce this threat is necessary.
Although the use of oil has fallen by about 20 percent since s, oil today is the largest source of primary energy in the United States, accounting for about 40 percent of American energy needs. However, it imports more than half of the oil it consumes. Second, the four largest suppliers of oil to the United States are Canada, Saudi Arabia, Venezuela and Mexico, which together account for 55 percent of U.
Due to geographic proximity, free-trade agreements, integrated pipeline networks or reciprocal energy-sector investments,30 the United States has good diplomatic and economic relations with at least three of them and therefore faces a lesser threat. Despite this fact, the threat exists, and the United States is unlikely to be able to mitigate it by domestic policies.
Turkey can help the United States attain its goal of resource diversification.
Throughout the Cold War, the United States supplied military training and arms and established military bases in oil-rich regions in the Persian Gulf and Africa,35 as well as in Turkey. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, the United States has seen no reason to pursue such policies further; the main competitor has disappeared.
However, as threats posed by newly emerging powers such as China and Russia grew throughout the s, the United States returned to such policies and is now extending its military aid to states in the Caspian Basin as well.
America also strongly promoted its ideas as to where new infrastructure should be built. Because this was a matter of national security,38 U. An instance of such behavior occurred when President Clinton oversaw the signing of an agreement for the BTC pipeline ina pipeline now transporting oil from Baku, Azerbaijan, to the Turkish port Ceyhan, from which oil can be shipped to Western markets.
On the military side, some see the war in Afghanistan and the ongoing deployment of U. Military control and aid are, of course, major tools for promoting American interests in the region. From the energy angle, Turkey is therefore of substantial geopolitical importance to the United States, although perhaps not as important as it is to the EU.Turkey is important in the Middle East because of its geographic position, straddling Europe and Asia; because it is a leading member of Nato; and because the Islamist President Erdogan and his AK.
decline in Turkey’s strategic importance to the West; however, the political changes in the world since have also loosened the con- Analyzing Turkey’s Role in the Middle East,” held on June 1–2, The foundations of Turkey’s foreign policy are a legacy of the country’s founder, Kemal Ataturk.
Turkey, under President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan’s leadership, will play a more decisive role in the Middle East in the years to come, experts on Turkish foreign policy told Anadolu Agency.
The. Feb 12, · Turkey’s critics have called into question its reliability as a NATO ally, including in the fight against the radical Wahhabi group known as the Islamic State. But much of this concern is .
The Middle East is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa). Saudi Arabia is geographically the largest Middle Eastern nation while Bahrain is the smallest.
The corresponding adjective is Middle Eastern and the derived noun is Middle Easterner. Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia, all located just northeast of Turkey, are at times associated with the Middle East, Europe, Asia, or as their own separate region.
South of the Mediterranean Sea, the Red and Arabian Seas surround the southern part of the Middle East.