Impacts of Imperialism Imperialism had a big impact on both the Western and Non-western countries. During the age of Imperialism a truly global economy emerged.
Teaching the Great Divergence: The Wealth and Poverty of Nations: The last ten years have seen numerous books and articles published that attempt to answer the question why Europe industrialized, and eventually modernized, before China. Much of this literature, including the four books reviewed here, raises important and timely questions about the historical roots of the global economy and its connection to today's world.
The difficult problem with this important research for the teacher of world history is trying to figure out how to use it in the classroom. In looking at these four books, it is probably best to see them as resources for topics such as early modern trade, the Atlantic System, the Industrial Revolution, imperialism, twentieth-century China, and modernization in the developing world.
This observation raises the question of the origins of the dominance.
David Landes begins his book by suggesting that if it was possible to look around the world infew people would have guessed that Europe, and particularly Britain, would come to dominate the world bybut he also points to as the origins of Western dominance. The other authors believe that if you looked around the world inboth Britain and China were in a position to dominate the world.
This is the fundamental difference between Landes and the other authors. He argues that between and Europe was fragmented, so there was no single political power to limit the development of European culture. European states were constantly competing with each other, so Europeans developed a uniquely dynamic culture in which rulers made decisions that benefited subjects: Landes contrasts a fragmented and progressive Europe with a static Asia ruled by despotic emperors that exploited subjects for their own benefit.
AfterEuropeans extended this competition to other parts of the world. Europeans, because of their dynamic culture, were more willing to experiment with technology and science, were more driven by the acquisition of profit, and were fundamentally more willing to experiment and try out new solutions.
Because of these attributes, Landes argues, Europe quickly dominated the technologically primitive Native Americans and the culturally static and despotic Asians.
Within Europe itself, he believes that as soon as any European state lost some of its cultural dynamism, another more dynamic European state quickly became dominant. He argues that Early Spanish and Portuguese dominance declined as these societies became increasingly religiously intolerant, only to be superseded by the more dynamic Dutch and British.
The Dutch then lost their economic advantage as they became lazy.
Landes follows this line of reasoning through to the industrial era and the present day. Britain industrialized first because of a variety of institutional factors, but most importantly because of its dynamic culture and openness to scientific experimentation.
|PATTERNS OF DEVELOPMENT||The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade …the negotiating position of the less-developed countries.|
|Keep Exploring Britannica||A Short History of Japan:|
|While we have you...||Lerche III We live in a world that is simultaneously shrinking and expanding, growing closer and farther apart|
The other parts of the world that soon industrialized France, Germany, the United States, and Japan did so because of their flexibility, cultural dynamism, and willingness to embrace change and to copy the British model.
Spain, Italy, eastern Europe, and most of Africa, Asia, and Latin America, which did not rapidly industrialize, were unable to embrace change because of despotic rulers or some element of cultural stasis or religious intolerance. Landes develops this basic argument into an explanation of why certain parts of the world today are rich and certain parts are poor.
His advice to the poor parts of the world is to stop complaining about past injustices, work harder, and be open to change, which for him means being more European.
He writes in a simple language that students can easily follow, and he uses engaging anecdotes to set up and support his arguments.
Small excerpts of Landes would also be useful for illustrating traditional Eurocentric explanations for the rise of the West.
His third and fourth chapters are good summaries of the ideas of European exceptionalism and of despotic Asian empires.
It would also be useful to excerpt parts of Landes' discussion of the plantation system in the Americas chapter eight.
He argues that the financial gain from plantations only affected industrialization by providing extra capital that sped up the process, but that plantations were not necessary for industrialization. This section could be used in a class discussion of the connections between slavery, plantations, and industrialization.
Frank's argument is that between and a polycentric world economy existed that constantly shaped the actions of all states. He is also concerned with proving that Europe was not the center of the world economy in this period. Europe's participation in this world economy in was hampered by its limited ability to manufacture items that the rest of the world wanted.
It was only with the silver wealth of the Americas that Europeans were able to "buy a ticket on the Asian train" xxv. Europeans also used this silver wealth to surpass Asia and dominate the world economy afterwhen Asia's position in the world economy began to decline.
Europe's rise and China's decline revolved around economic cycles. Landes also speculates that following this pattern to the present day suggests that China will again rise to the top of the world economy.
This strictly economic explanation for the rise of the West is what sets him apart from Landes' cultural explanations.
The main problem is that Frank frequently refers to work of other historians and social theorists.Technology, Globalization, and International Competitiveness 31 specialization and exchange.
Eventually, the development of the semiconduc-tor spawned the current information technology revolution. The other parts of the world that soon industrialized (France, Germany, the United States, and Japan) did so because of their flexibility, cultural dynamism, and willingness to embrace .
Akio Igarashi is a professor of law and politics at Rikkyo University, Tokyo, Japan. He is editor in chief of The Journal of Pacific Asia and author of a number of books and articles, including Japan and a Transforming Asia (Henyousuru Asia to Nippon [Seori Shobo, ]).
Culture of Japan - history, people, traditions, women, beliefs, food, family, social, marriage Ja-Ma but Japanese urbanites lacked a political voice commensurate with their economic and cultural capital. and the government tried to transform social life and culture in ways that would command the respect of the Western powers.
Japan. The start of the Meiji Era and the beginning of Japan’s road to modernization, started when the 16 year old emperor Mutsuhito selected the era name Meiji for his reign. This period commenced with the collapse of the Tokugawa Shogunate and led to Japan’s. It’s remarkably unfashionable to study—or even talk about—the West these days..
Forty years ago the most important and popular freshman course at the best American colleges and universities.