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Used in multi-driver speaker systemsthe crossover is an assembly of filters that separate the input signal into different frequency ranges i. Hence the drivers receive power only at their operating frequency the sound frequency range they were designed forthereby reducing distortion in the drivers and interference between them.
The ideal characteristics of a crossover may include perfect out-of-band attenuation at the output of each filter, no amplitude variation "ripple" within each passband, no phase delay between overlapping frequency bands, to name just a few.
Crossovers can be passive or active. A passive crossover is an electronic circuit that uses a combination of one or more resistorsinductors, or non-polar capacitors.
These components are combined to form a filter network and are most often placed between the full frequency-range power Home vs alone lfe and the loudspeaker drivers to divide the amplifier's signal into the necessary frequency bands before being delivered to the individual drivers.
Passive crossover circuits need no external power beyond the audio signal itself, but have some disadvantages: Unlike active crossovers which include a built-in amplifier, passive crossovers have an inherent attenuation within the passband, typically leading to a reduction in damping factor before the voice coil  An active crossover is an electronic filter circuit that divides the signal into individual frequency bands before power amplification, thus requiring at least one power Home vs alone lfe for each bandpass.
Any technique that uses crossover filtering followed by amplification is commonly known as bi-amping, tri-amping, quad-amping, and so on, depending on the minimum number of amplifier channels.
In car audio systems, passive crossovers may be in a separate box, necessary to accommodate the size of the components used. Passive crossovers can also be designed to compensate for undesired characteristics of driver, horn, or enclosure resonances,  and can be tricky to implement, due to component interaction.
The changes are matters of concern for many in the hi-fi world. Active crossovers may be simple circuits that emulate the response of a passive network, or may be more complex, allowing extensive audio adjustments. Some active crossovers, usually digital loudspeaker management systems, may include electronics and controls for precise alignment of phase and time between frequency bands, equalization, dynamic range compression and limiting control.
Loudspeaker enclosure An unusual three-way speaker system. The cabinet is narrow to raise the frequency where a diffraction effect called the "baffle step" occurs. Most loudspeaker systems consist of drivers mounted in an enclosureor cabinet. The role of the enclosure is to prevent sound waves emanating from the back of a driver from interfering destructively with those from the front.
The simplest driver mount is a flat panel i. However, in this approach, sound frequencies with a wavelength longer than the baffle dimensions are canceled out, because the antiphase radiation from the rear of the cone interferes with the radiation from the front.
With an infinitely large panel, this interference could be entirely prevented. A sufficiently large sealed box can approach this behavior. A sealed enclosure prevents transmission of the sound emitted from the rear of the loudspeaker by confining the sound in a rigid and airtight box.
Techniques used to reduce transmission of sound through the walls of the cabinet include thicker cabinet walls, lossy wall material, internal bracing, curved cabinet walls—or more rarely, visco-elastic materials e.
However, a rigid enclosure reflects sound internally, which can then be transmitted back through the loudspeaker diaphragm—again resulting in degradation of sound quality.
This can be reduced by internal absorption using absorptive materials often called "damping"such as glass woolwool, or synthetic fiber batting, within the enclosure.
The internal shape of the enclosure can also be designed to reduce this by reflecting sounds away from the loudspeaker diaphragm, where they may then be absorbed.
Other enclosure types alter the rear sound radiation so it can add constructively to the output from the front of the cone. Designs that do this including bass reflexpassive radiator, transmission line, etc. To make the transition between drivers as seamless as possible, system designers have attempted to time-align or phase adjust the drivers by moving one or more driver mounting locations forward or back so that the acoustic center of each driver is in the same vertical plane.
This may also involve tilting the face speaker back, providing a separate enclosure mounting for each driver, or less commonly using electronic techniques to achieve the same effect.
These attempts have resulted in some unusual cabinet designs. The speaker mounting scheme including cabinets can also cause diffractionresulting in peaks and dips in the frequency response.
The problem is usually greatest at higher frequencies, where wavelengths are similar to, or smaller than, cabinet dimensions. The effect can be minimized by rounding the front edges of the cabinet, curving the cabinet itself, using a smaller or narrower enclosure, choosing a strategic driver arrangement, using absorptive material around a driver, or some combination of these and other schemes.
Horn loudspeakers[ edit ] A three-way loudspeaker that uses horns in front of each of the three drivers: Horn loudspeaker Horn loudspeakers are the oldest form of loudspeaker system.
The use of horns as voice-amplifying megaphones dates at least to the 17th century,  and horns were used in mechanical gramophones as early as Horn loudspeakers use a shaped waveguide in front of or behind the driver to increase the directivity of the loudspeaker and to transform a small diameter, high pressure condition at the driver cone surface to a large diameter, low pressure condition at the mouth of the horn.
The size of the throat, mouth, the length of the horn, as well as the area expansion rate along it must be carefully chosen to match the drive to properly provide this transforming function over a range of frequencies every horn performs poorly outside its acoustic limits, at both high and low frequencies.Fresno Yosemite International Airport FAT serves California’s Central San Joaquin Valley, which includes six counties, and the Fresno Clovis Metropolitan monstermanfilm.com is also the closest airport to the town of Yosemite ( miles from the south entrance of the famed Yosemite National Park).
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Home vs. Alone Lfe The college years are a time of growing independence for every college student. Freshman’s have to make decisions that will change the person they are now and mold them to be the person that they will become after college.
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My. A loudspeaker (or loud-speaker or speaker) is an electroacoustic transducer; which converts an electrical audio signal into a corresponding sound. The most widely used type of speaker in the s is the dynamic speaker, invented in by Edward W.
Kellogg and Chester W. monstermanfilm.com dynamic speaker operates on the same basic principle as a .