Abstract Art culture Modern Art theory of Art I Although art is fundamentally everywhere and always the same, nevertheless two main human inclinations, diametrically opposed to each other, appear in its many and varied expressions. One aims at the direct creation of universal beauty, the other at the aesthetic expression of oneself in other words, of that which one thinks and experiences. The first aims at representing reality objectively, the second subjectively. Thus we see in every work of figurative art the desire, objectively to represent beauty, solely through form and colour, in mutually balanced relations, and, at the same time, an attempt to express that which these forms, colours and relations arouse in us.
Leo Tolstoy on What is Art?
He goes on to say that many people hold the subjective view that art is beauty, and we call beauty that which gives us a particular kind of pleasure. In the objective sense, we call beauty something absolutely perfect, and we acknowledge it to be so only because we receive, from this perfection, a certain kind of pleasure; so the objective definition is the same as the subjective.
The kind of pleasure we receive from beauty is that which pleases us without evoking desire in us. We might try to be scientific about it, and try to find a definition of art based on beauty, which we could apply to all art productions to see if they belonged to the realm of art or not.
But all attempts to define absolute beauty have failed. There is no objective definition of beauty. All definitions amount to the same thing; that art is that which makes beauty manifest, and beauty is that which pleases without exciting desire.
But there is and can be no explanation of why one thing pleases one man and displeases another, so scientists cannot work out the laws of art. Aetheticians have attempted to work backwards by first listing acknowledged works of art, and then trying to find a theory to fit them all.
So now, no matter what insanities appear in art, once they find acceptance among the upper classes of society, a theory is quickly invented to explain and sanction them, just as if there had never appeared in history people who produced false and deformed art, which was afterwards discarded and forgotten.
And one may see now in the art of our circle, to what lengths the insanity and deformity of art may go. So that theory of art is nothing but the setting up as good whatever pleases us, that is, pleases a certain class of people.
In order define any human activity, it is necessary to understand its sense and importance; to do that one must examine the activity itself, and its causes and effects, not merely in relation to the pleasure we get out of it.
If we say that the aim of any activity is merely pleasure, and is defined by that pleasure, our definition will be false. If we compare it to the food question, nobody would affirm that the importance of food consists in the pleasure we get from eating it.
We know that the satisfaction of the taste buds is no infallible guide to the best food from a health point of view, in the same way the pleasure we get from a painting is no indication of its worth. People who consider the meaning of art to be pleasure cannot realise its true meaning, in fact, people will come to understand the meaning of art only when they cease to consider that the aim of art is pleasure.
So then - what is art? The latest definitions are: Art is an activity arising even in the animal kingdom, springing from sexual desire and the propensity to play Schiller, Darwin Spencer and accompanied by a pleasurable excitement of the nervous system. Grant Allen ; 2. Art is an external manifestation by means of lines, colours, movements, sounds,or words, of emotions felt by man.
Art is the production of some permanent object or passing action, which is fitted not only to supply an active enjoyment to the producer, but to convey a pleasurable impression to a number of spectators or listeners, quite apart from any personal advantage to be derived from it.
Sully The first definition is inexact, because instead of speaking of the human activity itself, it only speaks of the derivation of it The second definition is inexact because a man may express his emotions by means of lines colours etc, and yet may not act on others by his expression so the result is not art.
The third definition is inexact, because in the production of objects or actions affording pleasure, conjuring tricks or gymnastic exercises may be included, which are not art.
Furthermore, the production of a play which does not afford pleasure to the producer or audience, may yet be a work of art.
The inaccuracy of all these definitions arises from the fact that, in them all, the object considered is the pleasure art may give, and not the purpose it may serve in the life of man and of humanity.
In order to define art correctly, it is necessary to cease to consider it as a means to pleasure, and to consider it as one of the conditions of life.This shows that our religious and cultural background plays an important part in our artistic judgment, as it forms our point of view of art.
Although it may seem that artistic judgments are based on subjective opinions, there are evidences that objective opinions are present in our artistic judgments. Instead of art which feeds the spirit, an empty and often vicious art is set up, which hides from us our need for true art.
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The second () contained an important statement of Lewis's visual aesthetic: "Essay on the Objective of Plastic Art in our Time". It was during the early s that he perfected his incisive draughtsmanship. Nov 24, · Home» Disadvantage of plastic surgery essays» Disadvantage of plastic surgery essays Disadvantage of plastic surgery essays.
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Read this essay on Art in Life. Come browse our large digital warehouse of free sample essays. as one of the three artists who helped to define the revolutionary developments in the plastic arts in the opening decades of the 20th century, responsible for significant developments in painting and sculpture.
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