Etymology[ edit ] The Late Latin adjective modernusa derivation from the adverb modo "presently, just now", is attested from the 5th century, at first in the context of distinguishing the Christian era from the pagan era.
On the Indian subcontinentthe Mughal Empire ruled most of India in the early 18th century. During this period, the Empire was marked by a highly centralized administration connecting the different regions. All the significant monuments of the Mughals, their most visible legacy, date to this period which was characterised by the expansion of Persian cultural influence in the Indian subcontinent, with brilliant literary, artistic, and architectural results.
The Maratha Empire was located in the south west of present-day India and expanded greatly under the rule of the Peshwasthe prime ministers of the Maratha empire.
Inthe Maratha army lost the Third Battle of Panipat which halted imperial expansion and the empire was then divided into a confederacy of Maratha states.
British and Dutch colonization[ edit ] The development of New Imperialism saw the conquest of nearly all eastern hemisphere territories by colonial powers.
The commercial colonization of India commenced inafter the Battle of Plasseywhen the Nawab of Bengal surrendered his dominions to the British East India Company,  inwhen the Company was granted the diwani, or the right to collect revenue, in Bengal and Bihar or inwhen the Company established a capital in Calcuttaappointed its first Governor-GeneralWarren Hastingsand became directly involved in governance.
The rule lasted untilwhen, after the Indian rebellion of and consequent of the Government of India Actthe British government assumed the task of directly administering India in the new British Raj.
However, their rivalry cooled in when an Anglo-Dutch treaty demarcated their respective interests in Southeast Asia. From the s onwards, the pace of colonization shifted to a significantly higher gear. The Dutch East India Company and British East India Company were dissolved by their respective governments, who took over the direct administration of the colonies.
Only Thailand was spared the experience of foreign rule, although, Thailand itself was also greatly affected by the power politics of the Western powers.
Colonial rule had a profound effect on Southeast Asia. Tsardom of Russia[ edit ] Main article: Tsardom of Russia Russia experienced territorial growth through the 17th century, which was the age of Cossacks.
Cossacks were warriors organized into military communities, resembling pirates and pioneers of the New World. This area was settled by a population of free people practicing various trades and crafts.
Cossacks became the backbone of the early Russian Army. Inthe peasants of Ukraine joined the Zaporozhian Cossacks in rebellion against Poland-Lithuania during the Khmelnytsky Uprisingbecause of the social and religious oppression they suffered under Polish rule.
Finally, Ukraine was split along the river Dnieperleaving the western part or Right-bank Ukraine under Polish rule and eastern part Left-bank Ukraine and Kiev under Russian.
In the east, the rapid Russian exploration and colonisation of the huge territories of Siberia was led mostly by Cossacks hunting for valuable furs and ivory. Russian explorers pushed eastward primarily along the Siberian river routesand by the midth century there were Russian settlements in the Eastern Siberia, on the Chukchi Peninsulaalong the Amur Riverand on the Pacific coast.
Reason and Enlightenment[ edit ] Further information: The Age of Reason in the Western world is generally regarded as being the start of modern philosophy and a departure from the medieval approach, especially Scholasticism. Early 17th-century philosophy is often called the Age of Rationalism and is considered to succeed Renaissance philosophy and precede the Age of Enlightenment, but some consider it as the earliest part of the Enlightenment era in philosophy, extending that era to two centuries.
The 18th century saw the beginning of secularization in Europe, rising to notability in the wake of the French Revolution. The Age of Enlightenment is a time in Western philosophy and cultural life centered upon the 18th century in which reason was advocated as the primary source and legitimacy for authority.
Enlightenment gained momentum more or less simultaneously in many parts of Europe and America. Developing during the Enlightenment era, Renaissance humanism as an intellectual movement spread across Europe. The basic training of the humanist was to speak well and write typically, in the form of a letter.
The term umanista comes from the latter part of the 15th century. The people were associated with the studia humanitatisa novel curriculum that was competing with the quadrivium and scholastic logic. They self-consciously imitated classical Latin and deprecated the use of medieval Latin.
By analogy with the perceived decline of Latin, they applied the principle of ad fontesor back to the sources, across broad areas of learning.
The opposing two sides were, the Ancients Anciens who constrain choice of subjects to those drawn from the literature of Antiquity and the Moderns Moderneswho supported the merits of the authors of the century of Louis XIV.
Fontenelle quickly followed with his Digression sur les anciens et les modernesin which he took the Modern side, pressing the argument that modern scholarship allowed modern man to surpass the ancients in knowledge.
Scientific Revolution The Scientific Revolution was a period when European ideas in classical physicsastronomybiologyhuman anatomychemistryand other classical sciences were rejected and led to doctrines supplanting those that had prevailed from Ancient Greece to the Middle Ages which would lead to a transition to modern science.
This period saw a fundamental transformation in scientific ideas across physicsastronomyand biologyin institutions supporting scientific investigationand in the more widely held picture of the universe. Individuals started to question all manners of things and it was this questioning that led to the Scientific Revolution, which in turn formed the foundations of contemporary sciences and the establishment of several modern scientific fields.
The French Revolution inspired a wave of revolutions across Europe. Liberalism and Nationalism were popular ideas that challenged Absolute Monarchies in the 19th century.
French Revolution Toward the middle and latter stages of the Age of Revolution, the French political and social revolutions and radical change saw the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy transform, changing to forms based on Enlightenment principles of citizenship and inalienable rights.
The first revolution led to government by the National Assemblythe second by the Legislative Assemblyand the third by the Directory.The Consequences of Modernity Anthony Giddens POLITY PRESS. Introduction An example is the city. Modern urban settlements often incorporate the sites of tradi- tional cities, and it may look as though they have merely spread out from them.
In fact, modern urbanism is or-. Modern history, the modern period or the modern era, is the linear, global, historiographical approach to the time frame after post-classical history.
This view stands in contrast to the "organic," or non-linear, view of history first put forward by the renowned philosopher and historian, Oswald Spengler, early in the 20th century.
Modern history can be further broken down into periods. Introduction.
This is a purely personal selection of French 20th century poetry, covering the early to mid-century, and is not intended to be fully representative.
Environmental problems of modern cities Urban environmental problems are mostly inadequate water supply, wastewater, solid waste, energy, loss of green and natural spaces, urban sprawl, pollution of soil, air, traffic, noise, etc.
But Justify stuck hard to the rail and Good Magic was outgunned down the stretch, left with muddied flanks and disappointment in the absence of a rose garland.
— danielle lerner, The Courier-Journal, "Good Magic runs 'race of his life' as Kentucky Derby runner-up," 5 May by Emanuele John Gelsi, B.A. (JCU), monstermanfilm.com (JCU) [email protected] March A thesis is submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Social Planning and Development in the Department of Sociology and Anthropology at The University of Queensland.