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Before the invention of woodblock printing in China or by moveable type in a printing press in Europe, all written documents had to be both produced and reproduced by hand.
Historically, manuscripts were produced in form of scrolls volumen in Latin or books codex, plural codices. Manuscripts were produced on vellum and other parchment, on papyrusand on paper.
In Russia birch bark documents as old as from the 11th century have survived.
In India, the palm leaf manuscriptwith a distinctive long rectangular shape, was used from ancient times until the 19th century. Paper spread from China via the Islamic world to Europe by the 14th century, and by the late 15th century had largely replaced parchment for many purposes.
When Greek or Latin works were published, numerous professional copies were made simultaneously by scribes in a scriptoriumeach making a single copy from an original that was declaimed aloud.
The oldest written manuscripts have been preserved by the perfect dryness of their Middle Eastern resting places, whether placed within sarcophagi in Egyptian tombs, or reused as mummy -wrappings, discarded in the middens of Oxyrhynchus or secreted for safe-keeping in jars and buried Nag Hammadi library or stored in dry caves Dead Sea scrolls.
Manuscripts in Tocharian languageswritten on palm leaves, survived in desert burials in the Tarim Basin of Central Asia. Volcanic ash preserved some of the Roman library of the Villa of the Papyri in Herculaneum.
The oldest known dated Arabic manuscript on paper in Leiden University Librarydated AD Lectionary Inside the letter is a picture of a master in cathedra expounding on the Aphorisms of Hippocrates. Initial "V" rendered as "U" of "Vita brevis, ars vero longa", or "Life is short, but the art is long".
Image of two facing pages of the illuminated manuscript of "Isagoge", fols. On the top of the left hand page is an illuminated letter "D" - initial of "De urinarum differencia negocium" The matter of the differences of urines.
Inside the letter is a picture of a master on bench pointing at a raised flask while lecturing on the "Book on urines" of Theophilus.
The right hand page is only shown in part. On its very bottom is an illuminated letter "U" - initial of "Urina ergo est colamentum sanguinis" Urine is the filtrate of the blood.
Inside the letter is a picture of a master holding up a flask while explaining the diagnostic significance of urine to a student or a patient. Ironically, the manuscripts that were being most carefully preserved in the libraries of antiquity are virtually all lost.
Papyrus has a life of at most a century or two in relatively moist Italian or Greek conditions; only those works copied onto parchment, usually after the general conversion to Christianity, have survived, and by no means all of those.
Originally, all books were in manuscript form.
In China, and later other parts of East Asia, woodblock printing was used for books from about the 7th century. The earliest dated example is the Diamond Sutra of In the Islamic world and the West, all books were in manuscript until the introduction of movable type printing in about Distribute a rubric that focuses on assessing persuasive and descriptive writing, as well as mechanics.
Skip to main content Rubric ; Writing Assignment Rubric Discover Colonial America This challenging project-based learning lesson will help elementary and middle school students build a connection to the past while. descriptive arguments that support your position. Persuasive strategies are used.
make the writing unclear. 3 Proficient Your point of view is convincing. You include clear arguments that have some explanations Kid Friendly Persuasive monstermanfilm.com Author.
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What is an Educational Virtual Museum? Virtual Museums were first introduced at the International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE) National Educational Computer Conference (NECC) in The slideshows were developed and presented by educators from Keith Valley Middle School in Horsham, Pennsylvania.
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Order online academic paper help for students. Professionally researched & quality custom written assignments. Much needed work place for writers! Short Story Grading Rubric. CATEGORY Exceptional (A) Good (B) Fair (C) Poor (D) Setting Many vivid, descriptive words are used to tell when and where the story took place.