History[ edit ] Establishment and early history[ edit ] The fraternity system in North America began at the College of William and Mary in The first fraternity in North America to incorporate most of the elements of modern fraternities was Phi Beta Kappafounded at the College of William and Mary in The founding of Phi Beta Kappa followed the earlier establishment of two other secret student societies that had existed at that campus as early as By the early 19th century, the organization transformed itself into a scholastic honor society and abandoned secrecy.
Search Research Articles This section provides information on current research and journal articles that are relevant to drug abuse prevention among college students.
Typical correlates of NMPDU include need for alertness, perception of peer use, desire to get high, and use of other drugs including alcohol and marijuana. Few studies have explored the relationship between strain, depression, and NMPDU among college students. Policy implications and future areas of research are discussed.
Marijuana use is associated with alcohol use and consequences across the first 2 years of college College entry is associated with marijuana initiation, and co-use of alcohol and marijuana is associated with problematic outcomes, including alcohol-related consequences.
The present study explored if: Analyses revealed daily marijuana use predicted greater number of daily drinks and estimated breath alcohol concentration; weekly marijuana use predicted more weekly positive and negative alcohol consequences; the effect of daily marijuana use on alcohol use strengthened over time, while the effect of weekly marijuana use on positive alcohol consequences reduced over time; and precollege level of problematic alcohol use moderated the association between daily marijuana and alcohol use and weekly marijuana use and negative consequences.
This study provides the first longitudinal evidence of the association between marijuana use and greater alcohol use and consequences in college students.
Future research examining event-level measurement of alcohol and marijuana co-use is important for the prevention of alcohol-related consequences.
Prescription opioid medication misuse among university students Prescription opioid misuse is an established problem in the United States.
Less information is known regarding the clinical and cognitive characteristics of prescription opioid misusers, specifically in a college age population. This study found prescription opioid misusers to be more likely to live off campus, have a lower GPA, and exhibit increased impulsivity.
Prescription opioid misusers were also more likely to report earlier age of sexual activity and were less likely to use barrier protection during sexual activity.
This study identifies a number of risk factors for those misusing prescription opioids that can be used to develop and refine prescription opioid misuse screening tools for university health centers.
It also identifies a number of concurring behaviors that can simultaneously be addressed when prescription opioid misusers are identified.
Participants included 1, students with and without history of ADHD. ADHD students were more likely to have engaged in frequent alcohol use, binge drinking, regular marijuana use, and to have used other drugs in the last year.
They reported higher depression symptoms than non-ADHD students, although substance abuse risk remained high even when controlling for depressive symptoms.
However, this difference was no longer significant when controlling for depression and marijuana use. College campuses should consider programing aimed at identifying ADHD students at risk for developing substance abuse problems and emotional difficulties.
Marijuana's Effects on Brain Structure and Function: A Brief Review and Commentary The recent Federal Drug Administration approval of the marijuana constituent cannabidiol as safe and effective for treatment of two rare forms of epilepsy has raised hopes that others of the chemicals in marijuana will be found to be therapeutic.
However, the long-term consequences of street marijuana use are unclear and recent studies raise red flags about its effects. Changes in brain maturation and intellectual function including decreases in intelligence quotient have been noted in chronic users and appear permanent in early users in most but not all studies.
These studies suggest that at a minimum, regular marijuana use should be discouraged in individuals under the age of Oregon recreational marijuana legalization: Changes in marijuana use after RML did not differ significantly for participants under and over age 21 years.
Some study limitations would be addressed with higher survey response rates, inclusion of other Oregon institutions, and controls for marijuana and other substance policies.
Still, findings are consistent with an effect of RML on rates of marijuana use among young adult college students, which may have important public health implications.
Effects of a personalized feedback plus protective behavioral strategies intervention for heavy marijuana-using college students Marijuana use is common among U. Liberalization of marijuana use policies is hypothesized to decrease social norms discouraging use, which protects against marijuana use.This review examines the empirical literature on fraternity and sorority drinking published during the last decade.
This body of 69 research studies indicates that both socialization and selection influence alcohol use in the Greek system, as do normative perceptions and the enabling environment of Greek housing. Research shows that Greek life can lead to an increased risk of lifelong alcohol and drug abuse, and some college officials have actually banned their fraternity and sorority members from drinking in order to get them to focus on academics.
Not all alcohol-related tragedies on college campuses are connected to the Greek system. However, the perceptions of many within and out- The purpose of this review is to investigate the complex relationship between Greek life and alcohol.
Although this is a circumscribed regarding alcohol policies. State and local alcohol policies can minimize opportunities for people to use alcohol, thereby reducing consumption and alcohol-related problems.
Little is known, however, about the prevalence of. The first chapter describes the serious problem of irresponsible, hazardous use of alcohol on college campuses in general, and particularly by fraternity members. It argues for the use of cultural perspectives as analytical lenses through which to understand the role of alcohol in fraternity life.
Fraternities and sororities, or Greek letter organizations (GLOs) (collectively referred to as "Greek life") are social organizations at colleges and universities. A form of the social fraternity, they are prominent in the United States, with small numbers of mostly non-residential fraternities existing in France, Canada, and the Philippines.