How would you know? The person may be able to identify basic emotions, such as intense anger, sadness or happiness yet lack an understanding of more subtle expressions of emotions such as confusion, jealousy or worry.
Advantages of Using Theory to Generate Ideas Why do Advantages of psychoanalysis psychologists prefer Advantages of psychoanalysis to common sense? As you can see from Table T-1there are at least eight reasons why scientists prefer theory to common sense.
First, theories tend to be more internally consistent than common sense. Researchers find it easier to make clear, consistent predictions from a consistent theory rather than from inconsistent common sense.
Second, theories tend to be more consistent with existing facts than common sense. Often, theories are constructed by systematically collecting data and carefully analyzing the data for patterns. Generally, if deductions from a theory are incorrect, the theory will be changed or abandoned.
Thus, unlike common sense, theories do not ignore facts. Consequently, a hypothesis based on an established theory is a more educated guess and should have a greater chance of being correct than one based on common sense. Third, theories are not restricted to making commonsense or intuitively obvious predictions.
Theories can make predictions that are counter-intuitive. For example, social learning theory predicts that rewarding a child for a behavior could make the child like doing the behavior less because the child may decide that he or she does the behavior because of the reward, rather than because the child likes it.
Because theories are not limited to making predictions that are consistent with common sense, a theory may suggest controversial, new ways of viewing the world.
Fourth, theories summarize and organize a great deal of information. Just as the plot of a movie may connect thousands of otherwise unrelated images, theories connect individual facts and give them meaning.
That is, theories try to explain facts. The ability of theories to connect facts means that theory-based research will not produce isolated bits of trivia.
Instead, the findings will fit into a framework that connects many other studies. For example, consider the following fact: In its own right, this is a relatively trivial fact.
Fifth, in addition to giving individual facts a meaningful context, theories focus research. Sixth, theories are often broad in scope.
Because theories can be applied to a wide range of situations, researchers can generate a wide variety of studies from a single theory. For example, social learning theory can be applied to prisons, businesses, advertising, politics, schizophrenics, smokers, librarians, mad dogs, and Englishmen.
Seventh, theories try to explain the facts with only a few core ideas. That is, they tend to be parsimonious: The value of parsimony is evident when you consider that a major function of science is to simplify our world.
The parsimonious theory provides a few simple rules that summarize hundreds of observations.
These general rules making existing knowledge easier to understand, remember, and use. Therefore, scientists prefer theories with a few far-reaching principles to theories that require a different principle to explain each new phenomenon.
Thus, it should be no surprise that two theories that have enjoyed great popularity--evolutionary theory and social learning theory--possess only a few, broad-ranging principles. Finally, theories are often more testable than common sense.
That is, by talking about variables that can be objectively measured and by making specific predictions, a good theory is easy to test. Some are more parsimonious than others, some are broader than others, some are more logically consistent than others, some make more interesting predictions than others, and some are more consistent with the facts than others.
However, if you are trying to develop a research hypothesis, the most important difference between theories is that some theories are more testable--and thus more useful--than others. Therefore, when choosing a theory, make sure that it is testable.
Characteristics of a Testable Theory To be testable, a theory must: Prediction rather than postdiction.The advantages of psychoanalysis is that you can take the resultsand use them to change your life and your personality.
You can alsohave an outside perspective on your life th at you are too. [Transference] Definition; The patient is not satisfied with regarding the analyst in the light of reality as a helper and adviser who, moreover, is remunerated for the trouble he takes and who would himself be content with some such role as that of a guide on a difficult mountain climb.
KENNETH ROBERSON, PH.D. Dr. Roberson is a clinical psychologist in San Francisco with 30 years of experience evaluating and treating adults with Asperger’s .
Leaving aside the second short text included in this volume and the introduction and rereading “Civilization and Its Discontents” after more than 20 years, I am more impressed than ever. 1)Psychoanalytic jargon serves to confuse rather than clarify concepts. 2)Some of the ideas (penis envy, Oedipus) are outdated in terms of our contemporary world, and it is questioned by some .
Some benefits of psychoanalysis are not shared by all types of psychotherapy. It values the individual's truths without pushing for conformity to norms.