This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
Abstract The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the structural characteristics and gambling behavior among video lottery terminal VLT gamblers. The study was ecological valid, because the data consisted of actual gambling behavior registered in the participants natural gambling environment without intrusion by researchers.
Online behavioral tracking data from Multix, an eight game video lottery terminal, were supplied by Norsk-Tipping the state owned gambling company in Norway.
The individual number of bets made across games was defined as the dependent variable, reward characteristics of a game i. Control variables were age and gender.
Two separate cross-classified multilevel random intercepts models were used to analyze the relationship between bets made, reward characteristics and bet characteristics, where the number of bets was nested within both individuals and within games.
The results show that the number of bets is positively associated with payback percentage, hit frequency, being female and age, and negatively associated with size of wins and range of available betting options. It is concluded that structural game characteristics affect gambling behavior.
Implications of responsible gambling are discussed. Structural characteristics, Reward characteristics, Bet characteristics, Video lottery terminal, Multilevel modelling, Behavioral tracking data Introduction Gambling machines [e.
Structural characteristics refer to the distinct features and properties of a gambling apparatus or a game Griffiths Primary structural characteristics include the core technology of a game, such as reinforcement schedules and betting configurations, whereas secondary characteristics include artwork, buttons, lights and sound effects Livingstone and Woolleyfor more comprehensive reviews see Griffiths ; King et al.
Game preference and gambling behavior appear to be associated with individual factors e. However, both theoretical assumptions and empirical findings suggest that the structural characteristics of a game influence gambling behavior.
By satisfying individual needs and reinforcing gambling behavior, it has been suggested that structural characteristics may lead to the acquisition, development and sustainment of gambling behaviors Griffiths Among others, a primary motivation to gamble has been linked to game features such as the chance of winning and hitting the jackpot Binde In line with learning theory, gambling behavior may become conditioned to certain structural game characteristics through operant and classical conditioning Blaszczynski and Nower These processes may shape and maintain gambling behavior over time.
For example, structural game characteristics, such as event frequency, payout interval and reward distribution have often been associated with the development of gambling behaviors that are hard to extinct Dowling et al.
Both laboratory studies and self-reports have examined the relationship between the reward characteristics of a game and gambling behaviors e. Livingstone and Woolley examined the attractiveness of several gaming machine features based on a telephone survey of Australian regular gamblers.
Their results indicated that reward characteristics size and frequency of wins and free games such as free spins were the most attractive structural characteristics of a game.In this research study, the researcher reviewedthe various motivation factors and examined various employees' demographicslike age, gender, education level and job tenure that may link to their.
Interpretation The value of r shows that there is positive correlation between the company ranking and customer ranking. It also indicates that both company and customer consider these characteristics important for customer satisfaction due to which the association between two rankings is positive.
Descriptive Analysis Page Status: Reviewed Definition: This is a general term referring to both a procedure (directly observing the behavior as it occurs in the natural environment), and the outcome (a statement or hypothesis of the variable(s) setting the occasion for and maintaining the occurrence of a particular behavior).
considerable numbers of characteristics can be used to interpret the complexity of principals works the result of which is students’ progress.
4. Methodology The current study is a descriptive correlation research. It is called descriptive, because the researcher tries to present an objective and disciplined description of a topic or a situation.
Psychological factors were also studied indicating that self-esteem was a significant predictor of competition/ego, affiliation, and physical condition motives, trait anxiety predicted motives of psychological condition, and to meet others’ expectations, whereas social physique anxiety predicted the appearance motive.
|Stefano Passini||Bivariate correlations see Table 1right part showed that selfie frequency was strongly positively correlated with own, group selfie, while more moderately correlated with partner selfie. All selfie posting frequencies except partner selfies were positively correlated with likes especially own selfie had a strong coefficientand with motivations concerning communication, archiving, and entertainment, while not correlated with attention except for own selfie.|
|The Difference between Descriptive, Correlational, and Experimental Studies Descriptive Research — use systematic observation to describe a specific behavior.|
GENERAL DISCUSSION The results of the two studies are discussed below in relation to: (a) the validity of descriptive analysis based upon the method of time-based lag sequential analysis, (b) implications of the results of the descriptive analyses for future research and practice, and (c) the potential utility of this approach to descriptive analysis in clinical practice.